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Search hints

Using wildcards

?

The question mark represents exactly one character. For example, wom?n finds woman and women.

*

The asterisk represents zero or more characters. For example, if you type test*, the results include words such as "test", "tests" and "testing". you can place wildcards anywhere in your search term e.g. "te*t."

Phrase search

"..."

If you type more than one word, your results may include materials with the words in any order. If you want to find the words in the exact order, begin the phrase with double quotation marks. Example "big bang theory" will find "The big bang theory" but not "is the big bang just a theory".

Combining Search Terms (Boolean Operators)

Boolean operators allow terms to be combined with logic operators. The following operators are allowed: AND, OR NOT and -.. Note: Boolean operators must be ALL CAPS

AND

The AND operator is the default conjunction operator. This means that if there is no Boolean operator between two terms, the AND operator is used. The AND operator matches records where both terms exist anywhere in the field of a record.

To search for records that contain "economics" and "Keynes" use the query: "economics Keynes" or "economics AND Keynes".

OR

The OR operator links two terms and finds a matching record if either of the terms exist in a record.

To search for documents that contain either "economics Keynes" or just "Keynes" use the query: "economics OR Keynes"

NOT oder -

The NOT operator excludes records that contain the term after NOT. To search for documents that contain "economics" but not "Keynes" use the query: "economics NOT Keynes"

Advanced search hints

Fuzzy searches

~

Use the tilde symbol at the end of a Single word Term. For example to search for a term similar in spelling to "roam" use the fuzzy search: "roam~" This search will find terms like foam and roams.

An additional parameter can specify the required similarity. The value is between 0 and 1, with a value closer to 1 only terms with a higher similarity will be matched. For example: "roam~0.8" The default that is used if the parameter is not given is 0.5.

Proximity Searches

~

Use the tilde symbol at the end of a Multiple word Term. For example, to search for economics and keynes that are within 10 words apart: "economics Keynes ~10".

Range Searches

{ }

To perform a range search you can use the { } characters. For example to search for a term that starts with either A, B, or C: "{A TO C}".

[ ]

The same can be done with numeric fields such as the Year: "[2002 TO 2003]".

Boosting a Term

^

To apply more value to a term, you can use the ^ character. For example, you can try the following search: "economics Keynes^5", which will give more value to the term "Keynes".

Availability

Link detected, possibly no free access

We offer a link to the requested Article or Journal but cannot determine, whether you will have free access to the full text. If there is no free access, we can usually provide the title through interlibrary loan.